This is a shortlist of various log files for various applications on your Cpanel VPS.

cPanel Installation Logs:

Apache:

Apache SUEXEC Logs:

MySQL:

BIND (named) Log:

Exim:

Courier or Dovecot IMAP:

Tomcat Logs:

cPanel Access Log:

cPanel Error Log:

cPanel License Log:

Stats Execution Logs:

ChkServd (cPanel Monitoring Daemon) Logs:

cPHulkd:

cPanel Backup Logs:

Pure-FTP:

Cron Logs:

SSH Logs:

ModSecurity: