Linux Commands – Gist

Access Control

exit     - terminate a shell (see "man sh" or "man csh")
logout   - sign off; end session (C shell and bash shell only;)
passwd   - change login password
rlogin   - log in remotely to another UNIX system
ssh      - secure shell
slogin   - secure version of rlogin
yppasswd - change login password in yellow pages

Communications

mail     - send and receive mail
mesg     - permit or deny terminal messages and talk requests
pine     - send and receive mail 
talk     - talk to another logged-in user
write    - write to another logged-in user

Documentation

apropos  - locate commands by keyword lookup
find     - locate file (i.e. find . -name *.tex -print)
info     - start the info explorer program 
man      - find manual information about commands
whatis   - describe what a command is
whereis  - locate source, binary, or man page for a program

Editors

emacs    - screen-oriented text editor
pico     - screen-oriented text editor (renamed called nano)
sed      - stream-oriented text editor
vi       - full-screen text editor
vim      - full-screen text editor ("vi-improved")

File and Directory Management

cd       - change working directory
chmod    - change the protection of a file or directory
chown    - change owner (or group) of a file or directory
chgrp    - change group of a file or directory
cmp      - compare two files
comm     - select/reject lines common to two sorted files
cp       - copy files
crypt    - encrypt/decrypt files (CCWF only)
diff     - compare the contents of two ASCII files
file     - determine file type
grep     - search a file for a pattern
gzip     - compress or expand files
ln       - make a link to a file
ls       - list the contents of a directory
lsof     - list of open files    
mkdir    - create a directory
mv       - move or rename files and directories
pwd      - show the full pathname of your working directory
quota    - display disk usage and limits
rm       - delete (remove) files
rmdir    - delete (remove) directories
stat     - status of file (i.e. last access)
sync     - flush filesystem buffers   
sort     - sort or merge files
tar      - create or extract archives
tee      - copy input to standard output and other files
tr       - translate characters
umask    - change default file protections
uncompress - restore compressed file
uniq     - report (or delete) repeated lines in a file
wc       - count lines, words, and characters in a file

File Display and Printing

cat      - show the contents of a file; catenate files
fold     - fold long lines to fit output device
head     - show first few lines of a file
lpq      - examine the printer spooling queue
lpr      - print a file
lprm     - remove jobs from the printer spooling queue
more     - display a file, one screen at a time
less     - like more with more features 
page     - like "more", but prints screens top to bottom
pr       - paginate a file for printing
tail     - show the last part of a file
zcat     - display a compressed file
xv       - show print, manipulate images
gv       - show ps and pdf files
xpdf     - shopw pdf files (use gv) 

File Transfer

ftp      - transfer files between network hosts
rsync    - fast and flexible sync between computers
scp      - secure version of rcp

Image Processing

gimp     - photoshop type image processing program
xfig     - drawing program
xv       - image viewer
xvscan   - scan picture 
xpaint   - paint program
kpaint   - kde paint program 

News/Networks

netstat  - show network status
rsh      - run shell or command on another UNIX system
ssh      - secure-shell version of rsh

Process Control

bg       - put suspended process into background
fg       - bring process into foreground
jobs     - list processes
^y       - suspend process at next input request
^z       - suspend current process  

Programming Tools

as       - assembler, specific to each machine architecture
awk      - pattern scanning and processing language
bc       - online calculator
cc       - C compiler 
csh      - C shell command interpreter
dbx      - source-level debugging program
f77      - Fortran compiler 
gdb      - GNU Project debugger
gprof    - display profile of called routines
kill     - kill a process
ld       - the UNIX loader
lex      - generate lexical analysis programs
lint     - check C source code
make     - maintain large programs
maple    - symbolic mathematics program
math     - symbolic mathematics program
nice     - run a command at low priority (see "man nice" or "man csh")
nohup    - run a command immune to hangups
pc       - Pascal compiler (xlp on ADS)
perl     - Popular script interpreter
prof     - display profile data
python   - Python programming language
sh       - Bourne shell command interpreter
yacc     - generate input parsing programs
xcalc    - graphical calulator under x

Status Information

clock    - determine processor time
date     - show date and time
df       - summarize free disk space
du       - summarize disk space used
env      - display environment
finger   - look up user information
history  - list previously issued commands 
last     - indicate last login of users
lpq      - examine spool queue
manpath  - show search path for man pages
printenv - print out environment
ps       - show process status
pwd      - print full pathname of working directory
set      - set shell variables (C shell, bash, or ksh)
spend    - lists year-to-date ACITS UNIX charges
stty     - set terminal options
time     - timing programs
top      - list  top  cpu processes
uptime   - show system load, how long system has been up
w        - show who is on system, what command each job is executing
who      - show who is logged onto the system
whois    - Internet user name directory service
whoami   - who owns the shell

Sound

mplayer  - mpg player 
realplay - realaudio player
timidity - midi to wav converter and player
xmms     - mp3 player 

Text Processing

abiword  - open source word processor
addbib   - create or extend bibliographic database
col      - filter reverse line feeds
diction  - identify wordy sentences 
diffmk   - mark differences between files
dvips    - convert TeX DVI files into PostScript
explain  - explain phrases found by diction program
grap     - pic preprocessor for drawing graphs 
hyphen   - find hyphenated words 
ispell   - check spelling interactively
latex    - format text in LaTeX (based on TeX)
pdfelatex- latex with pdf output 
latex2html- Latex to html
lookbib  - find bibliography references
macref   - make cross-reference listing of nroff/troff macro files
ndx      - create a subject-page index for a document
neqn     - format mathematics with nroff
nroff    - format text for simple display
pic      - make simple pictures for troff input
psdit    - filter troff output for Apple LaserWriter
ptx      - make permuted index (not on CCWF)
refer    - insert references from bibliographic databases 
roffbib  - run off bibliographic database 
sortbib  - sort bibliographic database 
spell    - find spelling errors
ispell   - interactive spell checker
style    - analyze surface characteristics of a document 
tbl      - format tables for nroff/troff
tex      - format text
tpic     - convert pic source files into TeX commands 
wget     - grab webpage

Web

html2ps  - html to ps
latex2html- latex to html translator
lynx     - text based webbrowser
netscape - webbrowser
sitecopy - sitecopy is for easily maintaining remote web sites.
weblint  - html sytax and style checker

X windows

grabmode - info on screen: i.e. "1152x864"  51.213kHz/56.59Hz
import   - grab window (i.e. import ppm:- >out.ppm)
xdpyinfo -  number of colors 
xkill    - kill xwindow
xlock    - lock screen
xterm    - xterminal
xwininfo - information on open window 

Miscellaneous

alias    - define synonym commands
chquota  - change disk quota on ACITS UNIX systems
chsh     - change default login shell
clear    - clear terminal screen
echo     - echo arguments
pbm      - portable bitmap manipulation programs
popd     - pop the directory stack (C shell only)
pushd    - push directory on stack (C shell only)
script   - make typescript of terminal session
setenv   - set an environment variable (C shell only)
stty     - set terminal options