Load & Memory monitoring using SAR

Installation Install Sysstat Package



sysstat – daemon Using sar we can monitor performance of server(load, memory etc…) in real time. sar -q Report load average. (fetch data from /var/log/sa(sysstat)/sa*, where sa* represent the date like sa10,sa11,sa12etc.). Examples,

sar -r Report memory details. Examples,



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Increase SWAP space

It has been a common issue that in most of the cases the RAM gets upgraded after the server is live. For maximum utilization of the resources, it is recommended to create swap space of twice the amount of RAM. Hence if a RAM of 1GB is present in the server 2GB of swap space […]

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Disable direct root login via SSH

Please follow the given steps to disable direct root login access to the server via shell prompt. STEP 1: Create a user and add it to the wheel group SSH into your server as root and follow the below commands to create a user.

You can create any user instead of “new”. STEP 2: […]

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Linux Commands – Gist

Contents 1 Access Control 2 Communications 3 Documentation 4 Editors 5 File and Directory Management 6 File Display and Printing 7 File Transfer 8 Image Processing 9 News/Networks 10 Process Control 11 Programming Tools 12 Status Information 13 Sound 14 Text Processing 15 Web 16 X windows 17 Miscellaneous Access Control


Documentation […]

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Disk Usage – DU command

DU is the short form of Disk Usage. The linux du command is used to find out the disk usage in terms of file size and in human readable format. It can be used to get the size of the folders and the total disk usage. The usage of the command DU is very easy […]

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Commonly Used Port Numbers

The following port numbers are unofficial list of commonly used for linux/unix based servers. Port Number Protocol Function 21 TCP FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 22 TCP/UDP SSH (ssh,scp copy or sftp) 23 TCP/UDP Telnet 25 TCP/UDP SMTP (for sending outgoing emails) 43 TCP WHOIS function 53 TCP/UDP DNS Server (Domain name service for DNS requests) […]

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Change Priority of SWAP files

You can check the current priority of the swap file from /proc/swaps.

Inorder to change the priority of the swap partitions, you need to edit the “fstab” and append the new priority. If you have the fstab entry for your swap file /swap1 as:

then append the following:

You can re-mount it […]

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Changing VPS TimeZone

It is assumed, though not necessary, that you have already installed a hosting panel like Kloxo or Virtualmin. Changing timezone in OpenVZ The file /etc/localtime is the one which holds information of server’s timezone. We shall point it to the correct zone file by creating a soft link. Run following commands:

Changing timezone in […]

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